Come hell or high water

November 1960

From “Climate Control and the Oceans”: How the oceans recede and without any specific time criteria for interaction with the atmosphere, oceanographers and meteorologists are at a loss to adequately explain the general pattern of the Earth’s climate. Now man, along with his carbon-dioxide-producing industry, has become another unknown transformative factor. The influence of this new and geographically unique factor can work in any direction from different directions. It could be heading for a new ice age, or it could create another great tropical age, such as when coal and oil reserves were depleted. Interactions are so involved that experts do not yet know how to sort them. They are convinced of one thing – this influence is working to dwarf all previous changes made by man.

April 1969

From “a sterile sea”: change is beginning. “Man, a land organism, is more influenced by the chemical composition of ocean water than any other species living in the marine environment,” said Edward D. Said Goldberg, a professor of chemistry at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. For example, every year about 3,000 tons of mercury from natural continental sources and 4,000 tons from fungicides and industrial processes reach the oceans; The lead input from automobile fuels into the oceans is “roughly equivalent” to the action of silt; Pesticides, “the latest and most innovative entry into the marine environment,” are now widespread, and so are radioactive species; And man has introduced two new elements: the flow of sewage water and accidental pollution from man’s commerce. Probably half of all these contaminants are introduced into the ocean by activities in the US

August 1980

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